Aging 18, 430–442. The emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. Emot. (1992). Isr. (2000). This was taken as an indicator of higher strategic monitoring. Most importantly, our review suggests that for providing rewards and relative importance instructions a change in resource allocation policies occurs and thus, strategic monitoring is used to perform the prospective memory task. These factors might modulate the impact of task importance on prospective memory and ongoing task performance. In a similar vein, Guajardo and Best (2000) used a controlled computer-based prospective memory task to investigate the influence of a reward on prospective memory performance in preschoolers. Smith, 2003; Smith and Bayen, 2004) or whether it occurs automatically (i.e., without monitoring costs; cf. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.144, Williams, J. M. G., Ellis, N. C., Tyers, C., Healy, H., Rose, G., and MacLeod, A. K. (1996). Participant, rater, and computer measures of coherence in posttraumatic stress disorder. These three conditions of memory coherence represent three separate subcomponents or dimensions; respectively contextual, chronological and thematic coherence (Reese et al., 2011). Psychol. However, the relationship between different importance manipulations and motivation needs further investigation to disentangle the underlying mechanisms of task importance (see also Penningroth and Scott, 2007, for a similar assumption). We have identified many open questions, which call for a more systematic investigation of importance effects in prospective memory. Psychol. Providing a reward is a naturalistic way to induce importance and its effectiveness can be varied by the kind of reward, by the amount of reward or by manipulating the attractiveness (or unattractiveness) of the prospective memory task (i.e., the reward is the benefit of remembering the intention). The latter was manipulated by presenting word pairs, which were either strongly or weakly associated (i.e., high or low associations). The older adults showed similar prospective memory performance as younger adults when the prospective memory task was emphasized, but the reduction of the age-effect came at an increased monitoring cost for older adults. Maternal coherence in the Adult Attachment Interview is linked to maternal reminiscing and to children’s self-concept. Appl. When searching for a specific memory, an individual with a negative self-concept could activate a general memory about him- or herself that triggers ruminative thinking about the memory and the personal value of it. Research on memory coherence has clearly demonstrated its importance for well-being and effective functioning of the self throughout the years. Nevertheless, it happens that somebody forgets an intention although it is really important. Behav. Thus, manipulations that aim at increasing intrinsic motivation may enhance prospective memory performance without interfering with the ongoing task. Psychol. Second, an additional ongoing task can be added, thus requiring divided attention (e.g., Kliegel et al., 2001, 2004; Khan et al., 2008). The results of the seminal study by Kvavilashvili (1987) are in line with this interpretation, because communicating to participants that the experimenter would be waiting for an important call may have also enhanced the social motive. Clin. 21, 847–859. doi: 10.1080/00207594.2011.596541, Fivush, R., Haden, C. A., and Reese, E. (2006). 15, 75–97. Performance predictions improve prospective memory and influence retrieval experience. Learning means the dynamic modification of memory. J. Behav. For example, recently the story of a man was in the news who was jailed because he staged a bomb hoax in a church after he realized that he had forgotten to book the church for his own wedding, a failure of prospective memory. doi: 10.1037/a0015633, Jelinek, L., Stockbauer, C., Randjbar, S., Kellner, M., Ehring, T., and Moritz, S. (2010). Instead of retrieving specific memories as instructed, they responded more frequently with overgeneral memories such as categorical memories (i.e., the memory refers to a class of generic events) or extended memories (i.e., the described event lasted longer than 1 day) (Williams and Broadbent, 1986). doi: 10.1080/09658211.2015.1102938, von Klitzing, K., Kelsay, K., Emde, R. N., Robinson, J., and Schmitz, S. (2000). Difficulty retrieving specific personal memories could also hinder the construction of a coherent life story, which requires the integration of multiple specific memories. The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework. Psychiatry Res. In contrast, elaborative reminiscing predicts less memory specificity in anxious or avoidant attached children (McDonnell et al., 2016). Identity, Youth, and Crisis. It is important to know that while neuroscience has progressed dramatically over the last decades; there is no complete understanding of how human memory works. On the role of imagery in event-based prospective memory. Memory 21, 633–645. Astonishingly, prospective memory performance was lower when both a social motive and a reward were present. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.12.010, Brewer, G. A., Knight, J. Before continuing with this article, as an experiment, try to memorize this short list of words: (click here to reveal). 13 By avoiding to recall specific personal experiences, intentional or otherwise, one protects oneself from the associated emotions. Annu. (2011). 24, 645–658. They instructed children, aged 2-, 3-, and 4-years old, either to remember to buy candies or to remember to clean the dishes. Mem. Memory 20, 803–817. Doctoral dissertation, University of Leuven, Leuven. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.613. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569, O’Carroll, R. E., Dalgleish, T., Drummond, L. E., Dritschel, B., and Astell, A. doi: 10.2466/pms.1998.87.3f.1387, Cohen, A.-L., Jaudas, A., and Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Integration of these research domains offers new and exciting possibilities for future research and could result in new insights that enhance our understanding of the relationship between autobiographical memory and the self. 133, 122–148. 140, 69–97. Importantly, with absolute importance instructions, participants are not directly prompted to prioritize one task over the other. 118, 288–298. “The 50th wedding anniversary of my grandparents about 6 months ago was definitely one of the happiest moments of my life. Even though memories can be biased and blurry, they do play an important role in the construction of knowledge. Behav. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. doi: 10.1037/abn0000154. Memory 17, 732–741. 5:657. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00657. Received: 26 March 2014; Paper pending published: 30 April 2014; Accepted: 08 June 2014; Published online: 26 June 2014. Additionally, knowledge about possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the relationship between memory coherence and psychopathology is rather scarce. In contrast, for participants in the control group forgetting was much more likely when an interesting activity was performed. doi: 10.1080/14616730701455445, Waters, T. E. A., Bohanek, J. G., Marin, K., and Fivush, R. (2013a). It may indicate that providing a social motive increases intrinsic motivation and thus may not lead to a change of resource allocation policies. (2013) found that younger adults were not influenced by a relative importance manipulation. The manuscript was written by EV after frequently brainstorming with DH, who also critically revised the article on multiple occasions. Psychol. Cognitive vulnerability in patients with bipolar disorder. Fourth and final, by constructing memories about negative or stressful experiences and integrating these memories within a broader framework, autobiographical memory facilitates the process of coping with and resolving negative emotions (Fivush, 2011). I’ve always been a firm believer of true love, but a couple of months before my grandparents’ anniversary, I went through a tough break-up. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression. doi: 10.1207/s15327647jcd0604_1, Fivush, R., Berlin, L., Sales, J. M., Mennuti-Washburn, J., and Cassidy, J. In other words, being able to recall a specific past experience that is similar to the current situation and the details about how the past situation was dealt with enhances problem solving of the current situation (Evans et al., 1992; Goddard et al., 1996, 1997; Scott et al., 2000; Raes et al., 2005). This facilitates recovery and is beneficial for the effective functioning and well-being of the self. Implementation intentions about nonfocal event-based prospective memory tasks. Cogn. The structure of this integrative network is illustrated in Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System (Conway and Pleydell-Pearce, 2000; Conway et al., 2004). In this study, Einstein et al. doi: 10.3758/BF03197278, Keywords: autobiographical memory, memory specificity, memory coherence, self, Self-Memory System, Citation: Vanderveren E, Bijttebier P and Hermans D (2017) The Importance of Memory Specificity and Memory Coherence for the Self: Linking Two Characteristics of Autobiographical Memory. Psychol. “Remembering what to do: explicit and implicit memory for intentions,” in Prospective Memory: Theory and Applications, eds M. Brandimonte, G. O. Einstein, and M. A. McDaniel (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.), 53–91. These requirements for detail fit well with the criteria for memory coherence. Emot. doi: 10.3758/BF03196319, Marsh, R. L., and Hicks, J. L. (1998). One aspect of the long-term self is the conceptual self, which consists of attitudes, values, beliefs, relational schemas etc. In this paper, we will focus on two features of autobiographical memories in particular: memory specificity and memory coherence. Second, as can be seen in Figure 1, there are many combinations of factors that have been addressed in this review, but have not yet been studied empirically. It has been theorized that three different mechanisms are responsible for the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory; rumination, functional avoidance and impaired executive capacities. Psychol. 126, 748–769. J. Reduced goal specificity is associated with reduced memory specificity in depressed adults. Memory coherence has been operationalized in various ways throughout the years. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Future-minded: The role of prospection in Agency, Control, and other goal-directed processes J. Psychol. (2005). doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.104.3.499, Huntjens, R. J. C., Wessel, I., Hermans, D., and van Minnen, A. However, a basic overview will help the reader understand how Windows organizes its internal structures in memory and how these … Additionally, research has shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory is not a general characteristic of psychopathology. The results of studies using social motives as importance manipulation showed increased prospective memory performance without costs in the ongoing task. Autobiographical memories associated with feared stimuli in fearful and nonfearful individuals. Enhancement of cognitive control by approach and avoidance motivational states. Furthermore, since the memory coherence literature has taken more of a developmental approach throughout the years, several remaining questions regarding the dynamics between coherence and psychopathology remain present. The structure of past and future events in borderline personality disorder, eating disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Elaborating on elaborations: the role of maternal reminiscing style on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development. 38, 207–214. For example, episodic amnesia seems to impact memory specificity and memory coherence differently. McDaniel and Einstein, 2000; Meier et al., 2006b). Consider the important, and often overlooked, distinction between malleability and reliability. Mem. The association between memory coherence and PTSD has also been topic of intense debate over the past few years (see Brewin, 2016; Rubin et al., 2016a,b). In addition to being involved in problem solving, memory specificity and memory coherence both play a role in the development of a personal identity. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. Instead of only focusing on specificity, the training could target overall memory coherence. Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans. New York, NY: Guilford Press. “Exploring the functions of autobiographical memory: Why do I remember the autumn?,” in Critical Advances in Reminiscence Work, eds J. D. Webster and B. K. Haight (New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company), 61–75. Rev. Providing a reward increased activation in prefrontal regions which support the control and active maintenance of task-goals and may therefore increase strategic monitoring (e.g., Braver, 2012). The specificity of autobiographical memory and imageability of the future. doi: 10.1080/09658210802150681, Fivush, R., and Sales, J. M. (2006). Kessler, R. C. (1997). 23, 70–90. As we mentioned earlier, autobiographical memories contain various features that relate to different aspects of psychological well-being. (1977). The results showed that importance did not affect performance and neither did the manipulation of ongoing task load. Multiple processes in prospective memory retrieval: factors determining monitoring versus spontaneous retrieval. Cogn. For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. 104, 499–523. An investigation into the resource requirements of event-based prospective memory. Different mechanisms can explain the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory. Bluck, S., and Alea, N. (2002). Creating coherent narratives about negative or stressful events makes it possible to express and regulate the related thoughts and emotions and, eventually, come to some sort of resolution or closure (Pennebaker, 1997; Fivush and Baker-Ward, 2005). While ruminating about this general memory, the individual will not continue the search for a specific memory. General events are more specific than lifetime periods and are composed of clusters of repeated events or sequences of related events that share a certain theme (e.g., driving to class in the mornings). Additionally, the ability to create a coherent narrative about the current situation makes it easier to work through the emotions evoked by the situation (Pennebaker, 1997; Fivush and Baker-Ward, 2005; Fivush et al., 2008). In everyday life, prospective memory is important because it allows us to structure our time in an economic way and to lead an autonomous life. Psychol. Besides rumination, functional avoidance of the potentially negative and overwhelming emotions memories can evoke, also plays a role in the development of overgeneral memory. Our motivational account supports this assumption. They renewed their vows during a ceremony in the garden, which is next to a beautiful lake. Typically, we have more than one active intention and often, one intention is more important than another one. Raes, F., Hermans, D., Williams, J. M. G., Demyttenaere, K., Sabbe, B., Pieters, G., et al. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00960.x, Fivush, R., McDermott Sales, J., and Bohanek, J. G. (2008). 23, 183–192. I am both fascinated and terrified by the importance of a good memory. 21, 1644–1653. 107, 261–288. Articles. In the first part of this article, we will review the relevant studies investigating the effect of importance on prospective memory and classify them by these different methods to manipulate importance. (2013). For instance, the mechanisms described in the CaR-Fa-X model could be evaluated for memory coherence to get a better understanding of how and why incoherence relates to the presence of psychopathology. Lifetime periods represent certain periods in a person’s life with a clear beginning and ending that have distinctive thematic features (e.g., my time at the University of Leuven). The cache is located in the path between the processor and memory. These four functions all have been found to relate to psychological and physical well-being (Fivush, 2011). 125, 11–25. Res. doi: 10.1080/02699930500341342, Pasupathi, M., and Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Difficulty recalling specific memories therefore hinders problem solving. By creating coherent narratives about past experiences we can create meaning. doi: 10.1037/a0033219, Valentino, K. (2011). This shows how memory specificity, memory coherence, and global life story coherence interact to form a stable sense of self. Cogn. Bull. Einstein and McDaniel, 2005). Psychol. J. Fam. Finally, we suggest some new and exciting research possibilities and explain how both research fields could benefit from integration in future research. Gerontology 60, 73–78. Thus, these importance manipulations increase extrinsic motivation and result in a change of attention allocation (cf. Br. Dev. Meier, B., and Rey-Mermet, A. Being able to recall specific personal memories contributes to aspects of psychological well-being and effective functioning of the self, as demonstrated earlier. Psychological and medical conditions which involve memory loss, … In studies using a reward or a relative importance instruction, importance effects are accompanied by costs in the ongoing task (e.g., Kliegel et al., 2004; Smith and Bayen, 2004). doi: 10.1002/acp.894, Bird, A., and Reese, E. (2006). Both memory specificity and memory coherence are measured by scoring written or oral responses to cue words or instructions. Mothers who are more elaborate when reminiscing with their children about their personal experiences (e.g., playdate or school trip) tend to have children who are more specific and coherent, concurrently and over time (Fivush and Fromhoff, 1988; Valentino, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2016). doi: 10.1080/00207590344000132, Krishnan, H. S., and Shapiro, S. (1999). If this were to be the case when coding for memory specificity, such a memory would be categorized as a general memory because the experience described lasts longer than 1 day. doi: 10.3758/MC.36.1.149, D'Angelo, G., Bosco, A., Bianco, C., and Brandimonte, M. A. In addition, the load of the ongoing task was manipulated by asking the participants to perform an additional auditory digit detection task. The domain of memory specificity could likewise benefit from an integration in future research. Photographic Memory: The Importance of Preserving Community History Photographic Memory: The Importance of Preserving Community History. (2005, Experiment 1) also compared a focal and a non-focal prospective memory cue condition (i.e., concurrent overlap, see Meier and Graf, 2000). Gen. Psychol. J. Exp. Therefore we assume that someone’s ability to retrieve specific events and create coherent accounts of the events is a reflection of the way this personal information is organized within the individual’s memory. Additionally, given the similarities between memory specificity and contextual coherence, it is possible that memory specificity in fact is a subcomponent of memory coherence. Dark gray fields show enhanced prospective memory task performance or ongoing task costs, light gray fields show no changes in prospective memory task performance or ongoing task costs and white fields show knowledge gaps. The authors would like to thank Matt E. Graci and Dr. Robyn Fivush (Emory University) for their feedback on this manuscript. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2006.0003, Fivush, R., and Vasudeva, A. This lack of clarity about the definition and assessment of memory coherence makes it challenging to directly compare studies across research fields. So, by transferring knowledge about the dynamics between memory specificity and psychopathology, we could potentially resolve certain inconsistencies regarding the relationship between memory coherence and psychopathology. doi: 10.1037/a0014192, McDaniel, M. A., and Einstein, G. O. Through reminiscing with others our lives become intertwined and we create a shared past (Fivush et al., 2006). doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.7.493, Gordon, B. 53, 594–628. “Retrieval processes in prospective memory: theoretical approaches and some new empirical findings,” in Prospective Memory: Theory and Applications, eds M. A. Brandimonte, G. O. Einstein, and M. A. McDaniel (New York, NY: Erlbaum), 115–124. Motiv. Cogn. Efficiency is not just a quality to strive for; it is a core competency. doi: 10.1037/a0033722, Brewin, C. R. (2016). Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? Emot. Psychol. Additionally, different research fields that study memory coherence, have used different coding schemes to assess coherence within personal narratives. “Varieties of intention: some distinctions and classifications,” in Prospective Memory: Theory and Applications, eds M. Brandimonte, G. O. Einstein, and M. A. McDaniel (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers), 23–51. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.30.4.756, Smith, R. E., and Hunt, R. R. (2014). The prospective memory task was to remember to hang up a telephone receiver that was suspended during the experiment. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.03.014, Jones, C., Harvey, A. G., and Brewin, C. R. (2007). (2015). A multinomial model of event-based prospective memory. When trying to recall a specific event, an individual will start his search at the most general level of autobiographical memory and carry on to the level of event-specific knowledge. doi: 10.1007/s004269900006, Cicogna, P. C., and Nigro, G. (1998). 24, 121–147. Cogn. Not being able to imagine specific future happenings has been found to evoke feelings of hopelessness (Evans et al., 1992; Williams et al., 1996). Participants were engaged in an ongoing visuo-spatial working-memory task and they had the additional instruction to press a designated key every 2 min as the prospective memory task. Insight into the relation between memory specificity and memory coherence could also have some clinical implications. And normal kindergarten children: are preparatory attentional processes necessary for a service.: Elien Vanderveren, elien.vanderveren @ kuleuven.be, Front Loughlin, S. McNally! Holt, C. ( 2014 ) the amount of detail they entail, emotional... G. M. ( 1985 ) ) has shown that patients who suffer from or! Represents someone ’ s cognitive and socioemotional development at age 3 memories also differ in their internal. 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